Ctrl-F

Salah satu indikator anda telah menyelesaikan penulisan tugas akhir dengan cemerlang adalah bagaimana anda menghargai dan menghormati karya-karya yang anda baca, sitir/rujuk/refer. Terlebih lagi banyak dari karya-karya tersebut adalah hasil kerja keras senior kita sendiri.  Untuk itu saya coba membagi pengalaman saya dalam memeriksa Daftar Pustaka (DF) untuk terakhir kali (final check) sebelum draft tugas akhir disampaikan ke penguji dan pembimbing. “Draft ” saya garis bawahi karena dokumen tersebut yang akan dibaca dan dinilai saat sidang S1/S2/S3. Jadi jangan menunggu sampai versi final untuk memeriksa dan merapihkan DF anda.

Yang paling terlihat adalah (seperti biasa) rujukan dalam teks tidak ada dalam DF tidak, vice versa.

MS Word (for Windows/Mac) atau pengolah kata lainnya (Open Office, Corel Wordperfect, Star Office), semuanya sudah menyediakan perintah (command) untuk menyusun rujukan dan DF secara otomatis (Bibiography dalam menu References). Untuk Ms Word lihat ( http://blog.fitb.itb.ac.id/derwinirawan/?page_id=180).

Selain itu ada juga tools yang sudah tersedia sejak jaman Wordstar, Chiwriter dll. (Sebagian dr kita mungkin belum lahir saat 2 piranti lunak itu booming).

Perintah itu adalah perintah “Find”.

Cukup dengan menekan Ctrl (tombol kontrol) dan “F” maka semua yang kita cari muncul. Caranya?

  1. Buka data tugas akhir (TA) anda.
  2. Print halaman DF anda untuk memudahkan pengecekan.
  3. Tekan tombol “Ctrl” dan “F”. Maka kolom pencarian akan muncul.
  4. Ketik kata kuncinya pada kolom yang disediakan, bisa dicoba mengetik “(19” dan “(20”. Mengapa? Karena rujukan kita biasanya mengandung kata kunci di atas, misal: Irawan (2009). Jadi semua rujukan dalam teks yang mengandung kedua teks di atas akan muncul.
  5. Cocokkan rujukan yang muncul dengan DF anda. Yang ada di teks harus ada dalam DF, yang ada dalam DF harus muncul di setidaknya satu bagian dalam teks anda.

Mudah dan cepat bukan? Tapi 30 menit yang anda sisakan sebelum mengumpulkan TA versi draft/final, dapat mengubah kesan penguji dan pembimbing terhadap diri anda. Tentunya jangan lupa mempersiapkan materi sidangnya. Itu yang utama.

Tambahan: kalau ingin lebih mudah dan gratis, sekaligus untuk belajar lebih jauh mengenai memebuat sitasi dan daftar pustaka bisa coba layanan berikut: http://www.easybib.com/cite/view
Semoga bermanfaat.

D. Erwin Irawan

 

Microsoft Research (1)

Lama tidak mengunjungi www.bing.com, ternyata Microsoft (MS) sudah punya saingan untuk Google Scholar. Fasilitas sepertinya lebih OK, tapi sepertinya masih kalah untuk database-nya.

 
 

Seperti produk MS lainnya, antarmuka (interface) grafis banyak digunakan. Tidak seperti Google yang lebih sederhana dan basis teks. Beberapa fasilitas yang tayang di halaman muka adalah sebagai berikut.

 
 

http://academic.research.microsoft.com/

 
 


 
 

Belum selesai saya melihat masing-masing menu. Tampaknya memang MS serius dalam membangun database riset ini. Saya baru selesai membuka halaman “Academic Map”.

 
 

http://academic.research.microsoft.com/AcademicMap

 
 


 
 

Hasilnya adalah lingkaran-lingkaran lembaga pendidikan/riset yang ada dalam databasenya. Tentunya diawali dengan para penulis yang mencantumkan institusi masing-masing. Di bagian tengah atas layar ada beberapa kolom untuk keperluan filtering. Anda dapat melihat sendiri, ITB muncul di sebagian besar bidang yang ada dalam daftar. Bila lingkaran ITB di-klik, maka akan muncul:

 
 


 
 

http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Organization/10897/institute-of-technology-bandung

 
 


 
 

Layar tersebut akan berubah-ubah sesuai dengan pilihan bidang ilmu.

 
 

Selamat mencoba. Hasil-hasil lainnya akan dilaporkan dalam posting berikutnya.

Cited by 3 (Alhamdulillah)

Hydrogeochemistry of volcanic hydrogeology based on cluster analysis of Mount Ciremai, West Java, Indonesia

DE Irawan, DJ Puradimaja, S Notosiswoyo… – Journal of …, 2009 – Elsevier
Hydrogeochemical analysis has been conducted on 119 spring locations to portray volcanic
hydrogeological system of Mount Ciremai, West Java, Indonesia. Cluster analysis on 14
parameters has extracted three clusters. Cluster 1 (112 springs) is distinguished by 
================

[PDF] TEMPORAL ANALYSIS OF VISIBLE-THERMAL INFRARED BAND AND MAGNETOTELLURIC METHOD TO SIMULATE A GEOTHERMAL SITTING AT MT. …

P Sumintadireja, A Saepuloh, D Irawan, L Junursyah – ere.stanford.edu
ABSTRACT Detecting thermal anomaly at surface is crucial for geothermal exploration.
Since field observations to map surface manifestation are costly and only limited to certain
area, we adopted a temporal analysis of visible to thermal infrared band of Landsat 

Hydrochemical analysis to evaluate the seawater ingress in a small coral island of India

P Banerjee, VS Singh, A Singh, RK Prasad… – Environmental …, 2011 – Springer
Abstract The sustainable development of the limited groundwater resources in the tropical
island requires a thorough understanding of detail hydrogeological regime including the
hydrochemical behavior of groundwater. Detail analysis of chemical data of groundwater 

Identification of groundwater contamination zones and its sources by using multivariate statistical approach in Thirumanimuthar sub-basin, Tamil Nadu, India

M Vasanthavigar, K Srinivasamoorthy… – Environmental Earth … – Springer
Abstract Hydrogeochemical studies have been made in the study area by using multivariate
statistical analysis, which is mainly helpful for interpretation of complex data matrices to
better understand the geochemical evolution of the area and it allows identifying the 

Turning your thesis into a book (http://www.mup.com.au/page/55)

Turning your thesis into a book

Rewriting a thesis is not simply a matter of making revisions to the existing text. An original thesis should be regarded as the basis for an entirely new work, written with a new audience in mind.

This new work will address intelligent general readers who seek to be provoked, engaged, intrigued and/or seduced into reading your book. General readers do not expect you to prove to them how thorough your research has been, or how many other texts you have consulted. They simply want to know what you have found out and what you think about it.

The most important tasks in rewriting a thesis are to:

  1. remove all academic scaffolding;
  2. reorganise the material to make it more interesting and accessible;
  3. refocus clearly on the heart of your story or argument;
  4. reduce the scholarly apparatus;
  5. rewrite to give your text a direct and personal voice, to address the reader in plain English, to eliminate all instances of academic jargon, and to create new links for the restructured material.

1. Remove all academic scaffolding

In a thesis, the examiners expect you to explain what you are setting out to do, and how you are going to go about doing it, before you actually do it. Then, after you have done it, you are required to restate or summarise your methods, findings and conclusions.

In a book, these preliminaries and wrap-ups are superfluous. They get in the reader’s way, become repetitive and obscure the impact of the real subject matter. They also take up valuable space. The Abstract and Introduction that are both essential in a thesis are not needed in a book. Neither are the usual chapter Introductions and Conclusions. Ordinary readers want you to get straight to the point. Thus, anything that sounds like “In this chapter I will argue . . .” or “In this chapter I have shown . . .” should be deleted immediately.

2. Reorganise the material

When writing for the general reader, you should introduce the most arresting, intriguing, or unusual aspects of the work the heart of the matter immediately. The background information and theoretical discussions should come later. As a rule of thumb, start from the particular, and work to the general, rather than the other way around.

In journalism, the rule for any story is always to “grab the reader’s attention” in the first paragraph indeed, in the first sentence. It may seem strange to compare a serious academic work with a newspaper story or article, but in fact the best serious non-fiction writers follow a similar principal. The most interesting, arresting or unusual parts of the story or argument should come first to attract the interest of the general reader, you can go back later to provide the necessary background and interpretation.

3. Refocus clearly on the heart of the story

You need to “pick the eyes” out of your thesis. That is, you must decide what the most interesting or important issues or themes are, and concentrate on these, ruthlessly discarding the more peripheral material. Background material for example, surveys of previous literature, historical background, discussions of earlier and current theories, arguments, methodology, etc. if retained at all, should be moved from the beginning to the ends of the book, or incorporated in a much-condensed form into the relevant sections of the main text. Remember you are writing now for non-specialist readers. You must be aware both of what you want to tell them and of what is going to catch and retain their attention.

4. Reduce the scholarly apparatus

Most theses have a enormous number of footnotes and an exhaustive bibliography, all designed to impress your examiners with the breadth and depth of your research. Having successfully impressed them, you now need to cut or condense your notes ruthlessly, and to reduce your bibliography to a reasonable size. Keep only what will be genuinely useful to an ordinary reader.

Any discursive or explanatory notes should either be incorporated back into the text or deleted altogether. Notes should be restricted to sources only, and should be turned into endnotes rather than footnotes.

5. Rewrite

Rewriting and new writing will be necessary. Having sketched out a new structure and focus, you now have to start writing all over again to create a completely new work. As you rewrite you must move firmly away from the usual impersonal, abstract academic style.

This means hunting down and expunging instances of:

  • academic jargon (find a way of expressing the concept in plain English, especially the first time you introduce it)
  • long, complex, convoluted sentences (no sentence should contain more than two ideas, which should be expressed as directly as possible)
  • inordinately lengthy paragraphs (break your paragraphs up as much as possible and vary them between, say, three and twenty lines)
  • abstract nouns (use concrete nouns wherever you can) the passive voice (don’t say “Similar observations were made by Johnson and Smith”; say “Johnson and Smith made similar observations”)
  • the third person used for yourself (don’t say “In the present writer’s opinion”; say I think).

You must learn to address your writing as directly as possible to an imagined non-specialist reader, using a natural, personal, and unpretentious voice and using plain English. Audience awareness the sense of a real, actual person to whom you are talking/writing is one of the most useful communication skills you can develop.

Try to imagine, as you write, that you are talking about your work to an intelligent, educated friend over the kitchen table or in the pub. Your friend is in another field altogether and knows little or nothing about your particular speciality, but is curious to know more about what you do. You would talk to this friend in quite a different way than you would write for your examiners. It is this friendly, straightforward, conversational style that you need to develop.

A number of academics who have become successful writers for a general audience have gained great benefit from joining a writing class in order to develop their writing skills, to enhance their audience awareness, and to unlearn the unfortunate writing habits instilled during their academic training. Courses in creative writing and non-fiction writing are widely available, and we recommend you give this option serious consideration.

A recent MUP title, Kevin Brophy’s Explorations in Creative Writing, would be an excellent place to start.

Template MS Office

Seringkali saya mengingatkan kepada para mahasiswa yang mengajukan proposal kegiatan, untuk menggunakan piranti lunak tabulasi (misal MS Excel) dalam menghitung rencana anggaran. Tidak dengan piranti lunak pengolah kata (misal MS Word). Sering saya mengatakan, “Karang Taruna di kampung saya saja pakai “Excel” untuk menghitung biaya”. Silih berganti panitia, sudah diingatkan, kembali panitia berikutnya mengulang kesalahan yang sama. Sebenarnya tidak salah juga, tapi pertanyaannya adalah, apa bedanya proposal dari himpunan mahasiswa (ITB lagi) dengan proposal dari Karang Taruna di RT saya. 🙂

 
 

Satu kali saya cari-cari fasilitas di MS Excel untuk keperluan itu. Ini hasilnya. Dan jangan sampai proposal dari mahasiswa (baca: GEA) masih menggunakan MS Word.

 
 

Buka MS Excel, piih menu “New File”

 
 


 
 

Akan keluar jendela template MS Excel, baik yang ter-instalasi di dalam hard drive atau yang terhubung dengan server microsoft.com.

 
 


 
 

Pilih template “budget”


 
 

Maka akan keluar berbagai template seperti di bawah ini. Bahkan ada lembar kerja (sheet) untuk merancang website, event, dll. Pilih yang anda perlukan. Tentunya dengan sedikit penyesuaian pada item pengeluaran dan mata uang (USD menjadi IDR).

 
 

So knock yourself out with it…


 
 

Beberapa form yang bermanfaat untuk monitoring dan evaluasi (monev) proyek

Beberapa tabel monitoring dan evaluasi proyek (Sumber: Ausaid). Dapat dimanfaatkan untuk mendisain kegiatan, memantau, dan mengevaluasinya. Semoga bermanfaat. Isinya dapat dimodifikasi sesuai keperluan.
Table 2: Assumptions underpinning the program logic

Assumptions
Evidence to support assumptions
Likelihood that assumption could be wrong
Consequence if assumption is wrong
Will assumption be tested.
If Yes, how will assumption be tested?
Assumption 1

 
 
 
 
 
EXAMPLE text
We assume that sufficient landholders will participate
Insert evidence on which this assumption is based

 
 
 
 
EXAMPLE text
Landholders have approached our organisation to assist them with rabbit control
Insert  what is the likelihood that the assumption is wrong (Rate using unlikely, likely, highly likely) (No reliable evidence to base assumption on or high chance assumption will be wrong)

EXAMPLE text
Fewer landholders than expected participate 
Risk = unlikely
Insert what is the consequence if the assumption is wrong (Rate using: minor (minimal), moderate, severe (bad)) 

 
 
 
EXAMPLE text
If less than 50% of landholders participate rabbit populations will not be adequately managed and reduced to allow recovery of critically endangered native vegetation
Consequence = Severe

Yes / No
 
 
 
 
Insert method of monitoring or testing the assumption is right.

 
 
EXAMPLE text
Landholders to be contacted 3 monthly to confirm they are actively reducing rabbit populations and area under management.
Assumption 2

Table 3: Project monitoring and evaluation plan

Evaluation purpose
Evaluation questions
Evaluation methods and frequency
What will be measured/tested and when
Monitoring measures and methods
Assumptions [List assumptions that will be monitored/tested]
Impact [The purpose of this is to evaluate what has changed as a result of the project activities and is the change as planned for the agreed target.]
EXAMPLE question:  What, if any, desired/ unanticipated positive/ negative changes or other outcomes have occurred as a result of this project?

To what extent were the changes directly or indirectly produced by the project activities?
[Indicate how and when you intend to answer the evaluation question(s) about impact]
[Indicate what you will monitor to answer questions about impact and how often]
[Indicate the measures you will use to monitor impact and how, when and where you will collect this data]
Effectiveness [The purpose of this is to evaluate whether or not the planned activities and agreed target outcomes have been achieved]
EXAMPLE question:  To what extent have planned activities and outcomes been achieved?

What other activities might be more effective?
[Indicate how and when you intend to answer the evaluation question(s) about effectiveness]
[Indicate what you will monitor to answer questions about effectiveness and how often]
[Indicate the measures you will use to monitor effectiveness and how, when and where you will collect this data]
Appropriateness [The purpose of this is to evaluate whether or not the project meet the needs of the community and used best practice to achieve the agreed targets]
EXAMPLE question:  To what extent were the project approach and strategies appropriate in influencing targeted stakeholders and achieving intended outcomes?

Are there approaches and strategies that might be more appropriate?
[Indicate how and when you intend to answer the evaluation question(s) about appropriateness]
[Indicate what you will monitor to answer questions about appropriateness and how often]
[Indicate the measures you will use to monitor appropriateness and how, when and where you will collect this data]
Efficiency [The purpose of this is to evaluate whether or not the project  could have achieved the agreed targets in a more efficient (cost and resource including peoples’ time) way]
EXAMPLE question:  To what extent has this project attained the best value out of available resources?

What other ways could you invest in activities to get a greater return?
[Indicate how and when you intend to answer the evaluation question(s) about efficiency]
[Indicate what you will monitor to answer questions about efficiency and how often]
[Indicate the measures you will use to monitor efficiency and how, when and where you will collect this data]

Table 4: Results chart template

Expected results expressed as project target outcomes
Summary of actual results to date
Evidence to support summary
Comments about data quality/availability
Lessons learned
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 
Table 5: MERI communication plan

Who needs access to information about this project?
Type of information and format required?
Why is information needed?
Methods of providing information
Dates /frequency
Australian Government

 
Financial reports in standard format
Accountability
Report by mail or email
November and June
Mandatory intermediate and yearly progress reports in standard format
Accountability

National reporting
Learning
Improvement
Report by mail or email
November and June
Mandatory final project report in standard format
Accountability

National reporting
Learning
Improvement
Report by mail or email
End of project
Insert additional internal and external stakeholders as required to optimise engagement and project delivery. See attachment